(Phys.org)—In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. To better understand how light can lead to the transfer of protons in a chemical reaction, a group of researchers from the University of North Carolina, Shanxi University in China, and Memorial University in Newfoundland have conducted adsorption studies on a new family of experiments to observe the transition that occurs when protons transfer between hydrogen-bonded complexes in solution . They provide evidence for new optical transitions characteristic of the direct transfer of a proton. This report recently appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.N-methyl-4,4′-bipyridinium cation (MQ+) serves as proton acceptor, where a proton will add to the non-methylated pyridinium amine. If proton transfer occurs, then MQ+ will form a radical cation (MQH+•) whose absorbance spectra in the UV/visible range can be compared to N, N’-dimethyl-4, 4′-bypyridinium (MV2+). By using ultrafast laser flash photolysis measurements, they found direct evidence for a low energy absorption band between p-methoxyphenyl and the mehylviologen acceptor, MQ+. It appears at 360 nm and as early as 250 fs after the laser pulse. Based on these properties, it is clearly the product of proton transfer from the phenol to give MeOPhO•—H-MQ+.The appearance of this reaction involving the transfer of both an electron and proton after absorbing a single photon is supported by the vibrational coherence of the radical cation and by it characteristic spectral properties. By inference, related transitions, which are often at low intensities, could play an important role in the degradation of certain biological molecules, such as DNA. The appearance of these absorption bands could have theoretical significance. They demonstrate a way to use simple spectroscopic measurements to explore the intimate details of how these reactions occur in nature. This provides new physical insight into processes that could be of broad biological and chemical relevance. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Fluctuating liquid structure induces ultrabroad infrared absorption—the hydrated proton on ultrafast time scales Photo-electron proton transfer with p-MeOH-ArOH and N-methyl-4,4′-bypyridinium. Credit: Thomas J. Meyer, David W. Thompson © 2016 Phys.org Citation: Using light to move electrons and protons (2016, October 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-electrons-protons.html More information: Christopher J. Gagliardi et al. Direct observation of light-driven, concerted electron–proton transfer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611496113AbstractThe phenols 4-methylphenol, 4-methoxyphenol, and N-acetyl-tyrosine form hydrogen-bonded adducts with N-methyl-4, 4′-bipyridinium cation (MQ+) in aqueous solution as evidenced by the appearance of low-energy, low-absorptivity features in UV-visible spectra. They are assigned to the known examples of optically induced, concerted electron–proton transfer, photoEPT. The results of ultrafast transient absorption measurements on the assembly MeOPhO-H—-MQ+ are consistent with concerted EPT by the instantaneous appearance of spectral features for MeOPhO·—-H-MQ+ in the transient spectra at the first observation time of 0.1 ps. The transient decays to MeOPhO-H—-MQ+ in 2.5 ps, accompanied by the appearance of oscillations in the decay traces with a period of ∼1 ps, consistent with a vibrational coherence and relaxation from a higher υ(N-H) vibrational level or levels on the timescale for back EPT.
© 2019 Science X Network Explore further Monkeys use tools to crack nuts, shuck oysters A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Brazil and the U.K., has found evidence of capuchin monkeys using stone tools as far back as 3,000 years ago. In their paper published in Nature Ecology and Evolution, the group describes the archaeological dig they carried out and the stone tool artifacts they found. Citation: Evidence of capuchin monkeys using tools 3000 years ago (2019, June 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-evidence-capuchin-monkeys-tools-years.html More information: Tiago Falótico et al. Three thousand years of wild capuchin stone tool use, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0904-4 Journal information: Nature Ecology & Evolution This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. a, Examples of cashew-residue-covered hammerstones from Phase I. b, Hammerstone from Phase II with clear incipient cones of percussion. c, Example of an anvil from Phase II. d–f, Examples of hammerstones with typical capuchin percussive damage from Phase IV. g, Weights of all hammerstones and hammerstones with flake detachments from all phases. h, Relative frequency of impact points on all hammerstones and hammerstones with flake detachments from all phases. Credit: Nature Ecology & Evolution (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0904-4 Prior research has shown that chimpanzees use tools, and have done so for over 4,000 years, and other animals have been found to use tools, as well, including birds using twigs to retrieve food. The study of tool use by non-humans is still in its infancy, however, and little is yet known about its evolutionary history. In this new effort, the researchers focused their efforts on capuchin monkeys living in Brazil’s Serra da Capivara National Park. The capuchin monkeys there used quartz stones to crack open cashew nuts. The researchers note that the monkeys place the nuts on a larger stone (an anvil) or a hard tree root before bashing it with a rock. They also note that such bashing left telltale signs on both the rock used as the tool and the anvil. Also, repetitive bashing on the same anvil left brown stains from the cashew shells. This information led them to begin excavating in the same areas to see if they could find any stone artifacts with similar markings.The researchers report that they found many artifacts going back approximately 3,000 years. They report also that the dig site represented a timeline of sorts—the deeper they dug, the further back in time they went, with increasingly older evidence of tool use. The researchers found that the size of stones used to crush food changed over time. They report that the oldest artifacts were small, and had a lot of damage—a sign that the animals using the tools missed a lot. Then, approximately 560 years ago, the animals began using larger stones—but only for a couple of hundred years. Approximately 300 years ago, the tool wielders switched again to using the size and kind of rocks that capuchin monkeys in the area use today.The researchers assume that the early tool users were also capuchin monkeys, though there is no evidence to prove it. They suggest that the monkeys likely changed tool size over time to suit the food they were trying to process.
Curiosity and the passion to collect rare things can go a long way and is surely a tedious task. Tarun Thakral’s passion to collect unique things led him to incept the concept of Transport Heritage Museum so as he could share it with everyone.’I am collecting rare transportation objects since 1994, when I first went Paris for my studies. I was inspired by a friend who used to collect souvenir eggs. Over the years I’ve personally collected everything from various parts of country and abroad as well,’ he said. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The first level of the museum is the automobile gallery which showcases the evolution of the Indian car industry, as well as cars that have been used in India since advent of motoring. 75 vintage cars parked alongside a recreated scene of Indian roads. There is also a section which has cars used in Bollywood flicks like the red car used in Dil To Pagal Hai and more. All these have been either bought by Thakral or been donated for his collection.The second level is amusing to stroll around as each section on the level portray different era of locomotion like pre-mechanised section has an array of palanquins, howdhas, bullock carts, horse carriages and camel carts. Along with it on display are decorative items such as carriage lamps which also used to denote the status of people – the higher the status the bigger the lamp. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAnother section is devoted to Indian Railways where a railway platform has been recreated of 1930’s including original posters, train tickets, lamps, railway maps. The heavy transportation section has bus, trucks, trams videos and a range of other things.The third level is especially amusing for us as it had collectible Indian toys looking at them will instantly take you back to childhood. A huge J3C Cub air craft in signature yellow suspended in the mid-air marks the aviation section which details history and evolution of Indian aviation industry. Next was the rural transportation section which has every two wheeler right from bicycles, tricycles, the SD motorcycle, Lambretta scooter, Vespa among other. Indigenous systems of transport such as phat-phat, chakhda, jugaad and Vikram auto are also on display.The final level has an art gallery where rural and contemporary art works are displayed. A section of historical collection displays old lithographs, original photos and rare pictures, vintage ephemera, vintage road maps of India among other.Thakral’s idea is to keep museum as dynamic as possible by constantly changing things and adding more. It’s also a fun way of learning so the museum has various educational programmes for children like educational visits, workshop, activities and also a weekend learning program for children.
Alok Kumar Verma, IPS, Director General (Tihar Jail), New Delhi has taken a new initiative for the prison inmates to augment their rehabilitation process by introducing Morning Ragas in collaboration with Legends of India. Beginning on April 27, Morning Ragas was introduced with great enthusiasm and fanfare. Internationally acclaimed flautist Pandit Ronu Majumdar performed on the inaugural occasion in the presence of almost 2000 inmates. Pt. Ronu Majumdar, Grammy nominee and a Guinness Book of World Record holder began his recital with Ahir Bhairav, followed by a Pahari dhun and two popular compositions Gadhiji’s Vaishnavi Jan.. and Tagore’s Ekla Chalo. He was accompanied by Kalpesh Sachala on the flute and Ustad Akram Khan on the table. The subtle nuances of the flute, a rhythmic jugalbandi between the flute and the tabla mesmerised the prison inmates to the extent that they not only joined the chorus but some of the inmates later expressed their desire to learn music in prison. Coaching classes in the prison will be soon introduced at the earliest. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’This musical concert has added a new chapter in the history of Delhi Prison. The event will be held every month. The purpose of conducting the Morning Ragas with sessions of sublime music is to release the inmates from the tyranny of conscious thought. Music is one of the best solutions to such problems. It heals and raises you. Music directly deals with the root causes of crime, violence, and addiction and offers a practical approach to emotional growth. “Our efforts shall help inmates guide themselves bringing in positivity into their lives and to rejuvenate them” said Alok Kumar Verma. It is anticipated that this would have a hugely beneficial effect on the inmates since the spiritual and emotional effects of music in human transformation are well known.
Theatre lovers get ready for a treat as the Pierrot’s Troupe is going to perform two of its unique and celebrated plays on May 24 and June 13.Lal
Kolkata: With Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee undertaking a series of development projects for the overall development of the state, Bengal has bagged the highest number of SKOCH awards in 2018.This is the first time when the Bengal government has won the highest number of SKOCH awards by implementing projects that have immensely benefitted the people of the state. Different departments, state owned undertakings and districts have received more than 100 SKOCH Order-of-Merit awards. The 52nd SKOCH summit was held in New Delhi for three days from June 21. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) department has received three SKOCH awards and it includes one Gold and one Silver citation. The project of setting up the MSME Facilitation Centre has bagged Gold citation and the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) application, which was implemented as Service With a Smile (SWAS) has received the Silver citation. SWAS is a mobile-based application in both android and IOS as a help desk for entrepreneurs. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedIt may be mentioned that the Chief Minister had directed to take necessary steps so that information related to the services and benefits extended by the government easily reach entrepreneurs and people involved with the MSME sector at the grassroot level. Accordingly, the projects were introduced and implemented properly. It has brought immense success to the state’s MSME sector. The project of developing infrastructure of state-approved industrial park under PPP mode has also bagged the SKOCH award. The state Panchayat and Rural Development department has also received the SKOCH award. The department has successfully implemented the hundred days work scheme to ensure jobs to the rural populace. Bengal government has been awarded for the implementation of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). Several steps, which were taken by the Chief Minister in the past seven years, has given a fresh lease of life to the Agriculture sector of the state. The state Agriculture department had developed Matir Katha, an interactive platform, through which farmers get guidance of experts through phone calls. The same facility is also available online as the state Agriculture department has launched an app called Matir Katha, through which reply to farmers’ questions are given within minimum time. Many other departments of the Mamata Banerjee government have bagged the SKOCH award for various projects. Departments that also received the awards, include Health and Family Welfare Department, Urban Development and Municipal Affairs department, Agriculture department and the state Transport department. The Chief Minister has introduced the Samabyathi scheme to extend support to bereaved family members from economically poor section of the society to carry out the last rites of the deceased. The state Transport department has received the Gold citation of the SKOCH award for its project Gatidhara, which ensured means of livelihood to thousands of youth by providing financial assistance to buy commercial vehicles. Besides the departments of the state government, district administration of Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, Dakshin Dinajpur, Birbhum, Bankura, Purulia, East Burdwan, West Burdwan, Asansol-Durgapur Development Authority (ADDA) have received SKOCH awards for different projects. It may be mentioned that the Chief Minister keeps reviewing the projects at both the state and district level. It has ensured the timely completion and implementation of the projects.
A Somali soldier and four militants were killed on Sunday as an al-Qaida-linked extremist group tried to attack a training compound used for intelligence officials in Mogadishu, a police officer said.The attack started with a suicide car bombing outside the intelligence school, which killed two attackers and a soldier, police Capt. Mohamed Hussein said today. He said soldiers then shot two gunmen who had seemingly lost their way and stormed a civilian house close to their target.The al-Qaida-linked al-Shabab group, which is waging an insurgency against Somalia’s Western-backed weak government, claimed responsibility for the attack through its radio station. Al-Shabab has vowed it would step up attacks against government and African Union forces in Somalia during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. The militants have been pushed out of much of the territory they controlled by African Union troops, which are backing the Somali troops, but they remain a threat, carrying out guerrilla attacks on government and civilian targets.
Kolkata: West Bengal Education Minister Partha Chatterjee today told the assembly that state colleges had been informed not to allow any kind of intervention by student unions during admission. Replying during the question hour, Chatterjee said application to the colleges had been made online as well as payment of admission fees eliminating the need for any manual intervention. He said that some stray incidents took place in one or two colleges out of so many and some sections of the media was creating an unnecessary hype about it. The minister said that the government had taken strict action against those trying to disrupt the admission process and also some arrests had been made. Regarding recruitment of teachers in schools, he said some people were going to court for cancelling panels. He said that if this practice continued, then the government would also move the High Court and also examine alternative ways of recruitment.
Researchers have discovered why it is important to stay clam before taking any big decision in life. Anxiety disrupts brain activity that supports decision-making, says a study.Anxiety disengages a region of the brain called the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is critical for flexible decision making, the findings showed. By monitoring the activity of neurons in the PFC while anxious rats had to make decisions about how to get a reward, the scientists made two observations. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’First, anxiety leads to bad decisions when there are conflicting distractors present. Second, bad decisions under anxiety involve numbing of PFC neurons. The data indicates that anxiety has an exquisitely selective effect on neuronal activity that supports decision making, said lead author of the study Bita Moghaddam, professor at University of Pittsburgh in the US. The study was published in The Journal of Neuroscience.As with many people who suffer from anxiety but go through day-to-day life and make decisions, the anxious rats completed the decision-making task and, actually, did not do too badly. But they made far more mistakes when the correct choice involved ignoring distracting information.